NTLM has been used to encrypt user authentication details in the Microsoft operating systems. In this video, you’ll learn about the history of NTLM and how the password information was stored in Windows.
<< Previous Video: One-Time PadsNext: Transport Encryption Algorithms >>
An authentication method that was created by Microsoft is one called LANMAN. You may see this referred to as LAN Manager. This is one that was created from Microsoft and 3Com. They were just getting into the world of network-based operating systems. So this is well before Windows NT. This is well before any of our Windows Vistas or Windows 7s. This was a very, very early type of operating system, and it’s one that still needed a way, of course, to authenticate.
So Microsoft has their own challenge response system in LANMAN. And it was very similar to what we saw with CHAP, but it was a little bit different. For instance, it was only uppercase ASCII characters, that you can only have a maximum password size of 14 characters, and notice that if you had passwords over seven characters, it split those off at seven. So if you had an eight-character password, what you really had was and seven-character and another one-character password that it would save. So already, the information that’s being stored is not, perhaps, the best one to have there, from an encryption perspective.
And the passwords are not salted either, which means that they’re always going to look exactly the same every time. We’re not adding a bit of randomness into the password process when we’re sending it across the network. So there’s challenges there with keeping that secure. There needed to be different ways to look at handling this LANMAN configuration, so Microsoft tweaked it just a little bit to try to make a few things more secure.
The update to that to make it more secure came with Windows NT, and this was updated to something called NTLM, NT LAN Manager. This is what was used in early versions of Windows NT. The password is now Unicode, which means it has a lot more flexibility on the types of characters you can have in there, could be up to 127 characters long, and it’s stored as a 128-bit MD4 hash, which is generally a lot more secure than the smaller DES hashes that were being used in the LANMAN configuration.
But even that wasn’t good enough. A new version called NTLM version 2 came out. This came out with Windows NT Service Pack 4, and this added some additional security. We had a new password response. There was an MD4 password hash, the same as what we had with the NTLM version 1, and there was a hash of the username and server name combined with that in there. So now we had a little bit more information thrown in there to make this a little bit more encrypted as it went across the network. This means it’s not going to be exactly the same every time. There’s going to be some things that are going to be randomized when that information is hashed and sent across the network. And there’s also this variable-length challenge sent that has a timestamp, some random data, some domain name information, a little bit more details in there so that we could make that conversation a little bit more secure during the authentication process.
There are few vulnerabilities you should probably be aware of when dealing with NTLM version 1, NTLM version 2, and part of this was created because there were two versions of this NTLM authentication. Therefore, we had to make sure that older systems could authenticate. If an older system didn’t know how to authenticate with NTLM version 2, then it may be locked out of the system. So unfortunately, a number of legacy systems kept not just the NTLM version 2 password, which was pretty secure, but it kept the older, insecure NTLM version 1 password as well. The challenge is that if somebody gained access to that NTLM version 1 database, they would be able to have a much easier way to decrypt and figure out what people’s passwords were.
We also had a problem within NTLM where it was vulnerable to what we call a credential forwarding attack. What this essentially meant that we could use the credentials of one computer to gain access to another computer. Now obviously, that’s not what you want to have happen as well. Microsoft has introduced bug fixes and updates to their operating systems to avoid these types of situations, but it’s something you should be aware of if you’re using a number of these legacy authentication systems.
Category: CompTIA Security+ SY0-401